What exercises to perform with scoliosis of the spine
According to leading orthopedists and vertebrologists, exercise therapy (exercise therapy) is the basic conservative technique for correcting spinal curvatures. In the article we will consider the effectiveness of therapeutic exercises for scoliosis and present a set of exercises for home therapeutic classes. In the end, you will find helpful recommendations for preventing scoliosis in children. Prevention is better than cure.
What is scoliosis
A distinctive feature of the disease is the curvature of the spine in the lateral planes. Common concomitant symptoms:
uneven muscle development;
twisting of the vertebrae.
The danger of scoliosis lies not only in the aesthetic imperfection of the figure. Pathology negatively affects the internal organs. For example, over time, progressive scoliosis leads to chest deformity, which causes overstrain of the heart muscle and breathing problems.
The disease is classified into three types:
C-shaped. It is characterized by one lateral curvature.
S-shaped. Represents two curvatures to the right and to the left.
Z-shaped. It has three arcs of curvature.
Doctors often use a different classification when determining the severity of scoliosis:
1 degree (deformation up to 10 °). Subtle curvature. Features: slight asymmetry of the scapular bones.
2 degree (deformation from 11 to 25 °). Noticeable curvature. Features: pronounced asymmetry of the shoulder girdle.
3 degree (deformation from 26 to 50 °). Strong curvature. Features: back pain, disruption of internal organs.
4 degree (deformation more than 50 °). Critical curvature. Features: the formation of a one-sided hump, regular severe pain, disruption in the functioning of internal organs.
Readers far from medicine often confuse the concepts of scoliosis and kyphosis. These are different pathologies. The first is characterized by lateral curvature, the second by deformation of the upper spine back.
Distinctive signs of kyphosis are:
narrowing of the chest;
weakness of the back muscles;
the appearance of a hump.
change in the shape of the vertebrae;
compression of the internal organs;
hernia of the spine;
Since diseases have their own signs and symptoms, it means that approaches to therapy should be different. Including physiotherapy exercises should be selected individually, depending on the severity of the pathology.
Only a doctor can accurately determine the nature of the curvature and make a diagnosis. If you notice any of these symptoms, contact a clinic immediately. Self-treatment for any deformity is contraindicated.
The effectiveness of exercise therapy
Exercises for the back with scoliosis of 1 and 2 degrees are performed only with the permission of the orthopedist. At the 3 stages of the development of the disease, any physical activity is carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor who selects an individual training program for a particular patient. With the most dangerous - 4 degrees of scoliosis - physical education is often contraindicated, and surgical intervention is considered the main method of treatment.
Exercises with curvature of the spine are most effective under the age of 25 years. During this period of human life, the active development of the tissues of the musculoskeletal system occurs. After 25 years, the bone growth zones are closed, and the skeleton becomes complete. Of course, physiotherapy exercises help at a more mature age, but its effectiveness will directly depend on the degree of development of scoliosis. Regular exercise therapy allows you to achieve the following results:
complete correction of spinal deformity;
strengthening the muscle frame;
stopping the progression of the disease;
normalization of the work of internal organs;
relieving muscle tension;
the formation of a beautiful even posture;
improved mobility of the shoulder girdle.
As a rule, with scoliosis of the 1st degree, only gymnastics for the back is prescribed. At stages 2 and 3 of the development of pathology, many doctors recommend additional methods of therapy. For example, in European medicine, Abbott-Chenot corset therapy is used, as well as specialized breathing exercises developed by the German physiotherapist Katarina Schrot. In addition, with the permission of the doctor, you can use a relaxing massage for the back .
Rules for exercise therapy for scoliosis
In order for physiotherapy exercises to be effective, we recommend that you adhere to the following rules and tips:
Exercise should only create passive sprain in the spine. Stretching under load can lead to deterioration .
Classes should be held regularly. If there is no contraindication from the attending physician, it is best to train every day.
Before you start classes, you need to warm up. A good workout will help prepare muscle fibers for exertion and improve their responsiveness to training.
Gymnastics should begin with simple elements. Gradually move on to more difficult exercises. This will avoid injuries and improve the effectiveness of the workout.
All elements of the gymnastic complex must be performed with their own body weight at a slow pace. It is unacceptable to create compression and shock loads on the spine.
In the complex of exercises for scoliosis, there must be elements that involve all the muscles of the body. So you will improve your overall physical condition and speed up recovery.
Patients with scoliosis are recommended every 4-6 months to undergo an examination with their doctor. This will allow you to track changes in the condition of the spine and, if necessary, adjust the rehabilitation program.
Types of exercises
Exercises for scoliosis are divided into two large groups:
Symmetric. Gymnastic elements, during which the patient holds the spine straight. The fact is that when the back is curved, the muscle tension under the load is not the same. Keeping the mid-position of the vertebrae, a person prevents deformation. The result of such exercises is the elimination of curvature and the strengthening of lagging muscles.
Asymmetric. Gymnastic elements, during the implementation of which the load receives a separate section of the spine. Exercises are selected so as to reduce deformation in the lateral plane. It is forbidden to compose a program of asymmetric elements on your own. Unreasonable use can lead to further progression of the disease.
Further, we will be interested only in symmetrical exercises, since these loads are simple and safe for independent studies at home.
A set of exercise therapy for scoliosis
If you have a slight curvature, and the orthopedist has allowed you to exercise at home, we recommend using the following set of exercises. If you have scoliosis of 2 or 3 degrees, consult your doctor about the safety of the proposed elements specifically for you.
Lying on the back :
Bring your feet together, hands on the sides. Inhale, gently pull up the knee until a right angle is formed between the thigh and the body. Exhale and lower the limb. Repeat with the other leg.
Spread your arms to the sides, taking the position of the "cross". Inhale and slowly raise the upper limbs over the chest. Place your palms on each other and as you exhale, lower your hands to the floor.
Bend your knees at an angle of 40-50 °, do not lift your feet off the floor. Place your hands along the body. Tighten your abs, inhale and raise your pelvic area. As you exhale, lower yourself to your original pose.
Close your legs and pull your socks away from you. Inhale and gently clasp yourself on the opposite shoulders, imitating a "hug". As you exhale, slowly spread your arms to the sides.
Place your hands under the buttocks. Raise your legs so that right angles form between the body and hips, as well as in the knee joints. On the inhale, straighten your knees, on the exhale - return to the starting position. Do not put heels on the floor.
Take your straight hand behind your head, hold the other hand next to your body. Inhale and simultaneously change the position of the upper limbs. Take a short exhale, then inhale again and again change the position of the hands.
Bring your feet together, bend your knees at an angle of 40-50 °. Inhaling, straighten your legs vertically and spread them apart. As you exhale, bend and lower the lower limbs to the starting position on the floor.
Stretch in one line. Bend your arms, touch your shoulders with your fingers. Perform 7-8 circular elbow movements forward. Repeat the back side of the exercise.
Place your hands under the lower back. Raise your straight legs 35–40 cm from the floor. Inhale and cross the legs. On the exhale - spread apart.
Bring the legs together, hands pressed to the sides. Inhale, bend one knee (do not tear off the heel from the floor) and at the same time take the opposite hand behind the head. Take a short exhalation, then when you inhale, return to the starting position and repeat the movement with other limbs. Perform 7-8 similar movements on each side.
Abdominal Exercises :
Stretch your arms in front of you, legs together. Inhaling air, stretch your palms forward, and feet in the opposite direction. Gently stretch your spine for 5 seconds. Relax and repeat.
Bend your arms in front of you and lower your forehead onto your forearms. Inhale, bend your knees and try to touch the buttocks with your heels. While exhaling, gently lower the lower limbs, but do not lay on the floor.
Keep your forehead on your forearms. Inhale and gently lift the shoulder girdle and arms. Hold for a second, then exhale lower your chest to the floor.
Stay lying with your head on your forearm. Bend your knees at a right angle. Alternately, while inhaling, raise your legs up. At the same time, try to maintain an angle in the knee joints.
Spread your arms to the sides. Inhale while lifting your upper body and one leg at the same time. Hold for a couple of seconds, then exhale, lower to the starting position on the stomach. Repeat movement with the other leg.
Pull the upper limbs forward. Inhale and simultaneously lift the opposite arm and leg 20-30 cm from the floor. Freeze for a couple of seconds, then lower as you exhale. Repeat the exercise the other way.
Spread your arms to the sides, raise your chest from the floor and hold it on weight. Perform circular motions with your hands, simulating swimming. Do 7–8 reps back and forth.
Stretch your arms in front of you. On inspiration, tear off the upper and lower limbs from the floor at the same time. Hold the boat position for 5 seconds. Try to bend your back too much.
Inhale, simultaneously raise the upper and lower limbs and spread them apart. The final position should resemble a star. Hold for 5 seconds, as you exhale, lower yourself.
Close your palms on the back of your head into the lock. Inhale and pull your elbows up. Keep your head and chest off the floor. Hold for 5 seconds, then as you exhale lower your hands to the floor.
In each of the exercises presented, it is necessary to perform 7-8 repetitions. Rest between the elements - 10-15 seconds.
Try to avoid jerky movements. It is better to shorten the amplitude, but maintain smoothness and soft stretching. We recommend doing the presented complex every day. If you feel pain in any exercise, discard it and inform your doctor .
Classes in the gym for scoliosis
A common cause of lateral curvature of the spine is the uneven development of the back muscles. To fix this, you need to perform symmetrical strength exercises.
Note that such loads are permissible to use only with the permission of the attending physician. Even if your curvature has an initial stage and is not visually visible, you must report the problem to the trainer and confirm the admission to classes with a medical certificate. Otherwise, the mentor will not be able to draw up a safe training plan.
Many of the usual exercises can not be done with scoliosis. For example, elements that create compression loads and contribute to twisting the spine are prohibited:
pull-ups on the horizontal bar;
slopes with a barbell on the shoulders;
army bench press.
We offer an example of a safe training plan for uniform strengthening of the back muscles:
Warm-up: 5-7 minutes of calm walking in an elliptical trainer.
Pullups in the gravitron (or thrust of the upper block): 3x20.
Thrust to the chest on the lower block sitting: 3x20.
Thrust towards the belt with rubber expander: 3x20.
Pullover in a crossover with a direct signature stamp: 3x20.
Forearm strap: 3 sets of 20-30 seconds.
Choose exercise weight so that you don’t feel a failure in the last repetitions. Your task is not to build a powerful back, but to strengthen the muscles. If you feel pain in the spine when performing an element, discard it and inform the trainer. Between sets, rest until complete recovery.
Come to the clinic every month for an examination. The doctor will evaluate the results of the training and give recommendations on the selection of loads.
How to prevent scoliosis in children
Most often, scoliotic disease manifests itself at the age of 6-15 years. During this period, there is an active formation of the spine and surrounding tissues. That is why parents need to carefully monitor the physical health of children and help strengthen it.
It is not necessary to immediately send the child to the sports section or pool. You can perform simple but effective gymnastics at home. We offer three exercises that are recommended by Dr. S.M. Bubnovsky. For classes, purchase and install a Swedish wall at home:
Squats (3x15–20). Let the child stand half a meter from the projectile and grab the bar with his hands. Legs are shoulder distance or slightly wider. After that, keeping his back straight, he should inhale and lower himself into a deep squat. And then, without delay, exhale rise to its original position. It is important that the baby keeps his back straight, avoids rounding of the spine and a strong bend forward. Bubnovsky recommends gradually increasing the number of squats to 100 per day (3 sets of 30–35 reps).
Raising the legs while lying (3x15–20). The child lies on his back about half a meter from the Swedish wall, stretches his arms behind his head and takes up the lower "step". With an exhalation, the baby raises his legs and touches the socks of the middle crossbar. Then with a breath - returns to its original position. In this exercise, lifting the lower back from the floor and a slight bend in the knees is allowed. Gradually, you should increase the number of repetitions to 100 per day (10 sets of 10 lifts).
Push-ups from the floor (3x10). The child becomes an emphasis lying on straight arms and stretches the body in line with the legs. Then, inhaling deeply, he bends his elbows and lowers his chest to the floor. On exhalation, it rises to its original position. When performing, the baby should avoid sagging in the lumbar. If it is hard for him, he is allowed to lighten the technique - let him push it out with the knees resting on the floor. Gradually, you should increase the number of repetitions to 50 per day (5 sets of 10 times).
The simple elements considered will help to form a strong muscle frame of the child and prevent many diseases.
We recommend conducting such exercises together with the baby. So it will be easier for him to get used to regular physical activity. By the way, these exercises are also useful for adults.
Subsequently, it is advisable to purchase a horizontal bar, bars and TRX-loops. Inventory will help develop the strength and endurance of a young athlete. If the child already has a slight curvature, we recommend that you bring him to a doctor to prescribe physiotherapy exercises.