Today, young girls and boys, in pursuit of fashion, imitating their idol, or under the influence of peers, without the knowledge of adults, begin to severely limit themselves in food.
A sharp, uncontrolled decrease in daily caloric intake, by more than 29-35%, can negatively affect the physical development and health of a growing person.
When does a teen need to follow a diet?
Compliance with strict food restrictions during puberty of a child can only be due to medical indicators. A special diet for adolescents is necessary when excessive body weight has a negative effect on physical and psychological health.
The consequence of overweight are problems such as:
- eating disorders;
- constant weakness, fatigue;
- excessive sweating;
- the appearance of shortness of breath even with slight physical activity;
- mental disorders (fixation on one's figure, depressed mood).
Objectively assess the need for weight loss, helps calculate the body mass index (BMI) of a teenager. Calculations are made according to the formula: weight (in kilograms) is divided by height (in meters squared).
Table number 1. BMI indicators for children 12-17 years old.
Number of years
|Odds at normal||for obesity|
|Husband. floor||Wives floor||Husband. floor||Wives floor|
With a slight deviation from the norm, there is no need to resort to any diets. The emphasis should be on the correction of the regime of the day and rest, as well as on the organization of regular physical activity.
Can teenagers lose weight
During the period of rapid growth and development, the growing body should not be subjected to any diets. Use a strict diet for children 10-15 years old, without the advice of a nutritionist - it is absolutely contraindicated.
Inadequate intake of necessary substances, long breaks in meals, limited or monotonous food entering the body can lead to serious consequences:
- problems in the gastrointestinal tract;
- metabolic disorders;
- the appearance of depression, decreased performance, frequent mood swings;
- deterioration of the skin, hair, nails;
- delayed physical development.
A more acceptable alternative to strict food restrictions is the introduction of regular physical activity. Properly selected sports load allows you to naturally correct the figure, develop good habits, as well as increase the self-esteem of losing weight.
To strengthen the muscles of adolescents, any moderate workout can be used, depending on the interests and preferences of schoolchildren: aerobic classes, swimming, dancing, skiing, volleyball, etc.
Spend from 200-400 kcal. Also allows a half-hour walk in the park at an average pace, cycling, Nordic walking, jumping rope, tennis. In order to achieve visible results, classes must be conducted daily for 20-35 minutes.
Weight Loss Diet Rules for Teens
At a young age, it is very important to receive a full-fledged complex of nutrients and microelements. For a growing organism, a significant reduction in any of the components of the BJU is unacceptable.
The key principles of healthy eating for adolescents include the following:
- A clearly organized meal schedule - 4-5 times a day. The last meal, it is advisable to carry out no later than 19-20 hours in the evening.
- The acceptable volume of one serving is 250-300 g.
- Breakfast and lunch should be hearty, dinner should be light, for snacks it is recommended to use fruits, sour-milk drinks, whole grain toasts with cheese, vegetables and herbs.
- In the diet of children aged 11-17 years, the optimal proportion of proteins and fats is 25% and 50% should be carbohydrates. During the period of weight loss, most of all incoming carbohydrates (more than 87%) should have a complex structure.
- Only gentle cooking methods should be used: steam processing, baking, stewing.
Compliance with the rules will allow you to gradually reduce body weight without creating stress for a young growing body.
Daily calorie intake for teens
Calorie rates for girls and boys will vary. Future men, daily require 250-300 kcal. more than their peers.
Table No. 2. Energy requirement for children 11-17 years old (kcal / day).
|Floor||11-13 years old||14-15 years old||16-17 years old|
Table No. 3. BJU norms for adolescents.
|Substances||11-13 years old|
|11-13 years old|
|14-16 years old|
|14-16 years old|
|Squirrels||82 g||90 g||91 g||98 g|
|Fats||84 g||92 g||90 g||100 g|
|Carbohydrates||355 g||390 g||360 g||425 g|
What foods are recommended to be removed from a teenage diet
The main "enemies" of the harmonious development of the figure of adolescents can be safely called fast food and high-calorie sweets.
The most harmful snacks that must be excluded from the menu of schoolchildren include:
- French fries;
- sandwiches with sausage;
- glazed curds;
- sweet yogurts.
A considerable increase in weight is provided by the excessive use of bakery products, especially pastries, shortcakes, sweet buns, chocolate donuts, cakes, rolls, and cakes.
It is important to limit the consumption of sweets such as:
- store biscuits;
- chocolate bars and tiles.
Any drinks containing dyes and sugar should be completely excluded from the children's menu: packaged juices, sweet soda, fresh juices, cocktails.
Allowed foods on the teenager’s menu
The diet of a teenager should be balanced, varied and tasty. The daily menu must include fermented milk ingredients, meat dishes, fruits, as well as a large number of vegetables and herbs.
Table No. 4. The list of basic foods for children 11-17 years old.
|1||Dairy||Cottage cheese, sour cream, milk, fermented baked milk, kefir, cream, cheese, butter.|
|2||Meat||Veal, beef, chicken, lean pork, liver (beef, chicken).|
|3||Fish||All, especially the sea. Seafood (shrimp, squid, seaweed, mussels).|
|4||Vegetables||High in fiber (cabbage, celery, zucchini, eggplant, radishes, bell peppers, pumpkin, beets, carrots), tomatoes, cucumbers.|
|5||Greens||Onions, dill, spinach, sorrel, parsley.|
|7||Fruits||Apples, pears, peaches, citrus fruits, persimmons, pomegranates, kiwis, plums, etc. Banana and grapes in limited quantities.|
|eight||Nuts||Almonds, walnuts, earthen, cedar.|
|nine||Cereals||Buckwheat, millet, barley, oatmeal, brown rice, barley, chickpeas.|
|ten||Bread||Whole grain, rye, bread, oat croutons, lean cakes of rice flour.|
It is allowed to drink any home-made compotes of dried fruits, jelly (with a minimum amount of sugar or without it at all), natural tomato, carrot, pumpkin juice, any tea.
Diet Options for Teens
At each stage of growing up, the child needs a certain amount of trace elements and vitamins. The nutritional requirements of the body at 11-12 years and in adolescence will differ.
Diet for teens 11-12 years old
This period is the beginning of the rapid growth of the musculoskeletal system. For the stable development of the musculoskeletal system, the formation of muscle tissue, children need a sufficient amount of calcium, potassium, protein. Essential trace elements must be regularly ingested with food and vitamins.
When planning a daily table for an eleven to twelve-year-old child, even during the diet period, dairy products (milk, kefir, cottage cheese, cheese, butter), low-fat poultry, and fish cannot be excluded. As a snack, it is better to use natural vegetable juices, fruits, bread rolls with pate and herbs.
Diets for teens 13-14 years old
For healthy development, a balanced menu is required. An excellent breakfast option at this age is a plate of buckwheat with pieces of meat (beef, veal), grated carrots and a glass of cocoa.
For lunch, it is better to choose a low-fat steak or fish with vegetables. Salads must be seasoned with olive oil or sprinkled with lemon juice. Store sauces, mayonnaise, ketchup should be discarded.
In the evening - cottage cheese pudding with pear or unsweetened apples and a glass of fermented baked milk. During the day, two to three small snacks are acceptable.
Diets for teens 15-16 years old
For most adolescents, this time is considered the most difficult psychologically. Hormonal restructuring of the body begins, which is accompanied by the rapid development of endocrine glands. Against the background of the ongoing changes, many girls and boys begin to have problems with their appearance, facial features change, their skin is covered with acne.
Together with the active formation of the body, the appetite and the need for nutrients increase. In the morning, it is advisable to consume slow carbohydrates, towards the evening, most of the products should be proteins. Fat intake at this age stage can be slightly reduced.
Proper nutrition in 17-18 years
During the development of a dietary program, it is important to consider not only the physical, but also the serious intellectual load experienced by 17-18 year old teenagers. The energy component of the daily diet should be sufficient to carry out daily and educational activities.
In this period, low-carb or any mono diets are especially contraindicated. To ensure fruitful mental work, it is recommended to include in the diet at least 2-3 fruits a day, a handful of nuts, eat pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, natural peanut butter.
From the age of 17, if necessary, one unloading day per week is allowed. The most suitable food options during unloading is considered to be a combination of fermented milk products with fiber (unsweetened fruits, non-starchy vegetables).
Sample menu for a teenager for a week
The main principle of catering for children during the period of rapid growth is balance. Up to 85% of the diet should be in healthy foods and only 10-15% in sweets or other unhealthy goodies.
One serving of food, on average, is 250-300 g. Normal clean (non-carbonated, boiled, bottled) water - in unlimited quantities.
Table No. 5. Sample menu for 7 days for adolescents from 12 to 17 years.
|Monday||Oatmeal with prunes and dates||Toast with cheese, tea||Buckwheat with gravy and slices of beef||Freshly squeezed orange juice||Stewed cabbage with tomatoes, bell pepper|
|Tuesday||Corn porridge in milk||Curd cake with raisins, tea||Chicken soup, 2 slices of whole grain bread||Glass of fermented baked milk||Steam cutlets, vegetable sliced|
|Wednesday||Pancakes with sour cream or honey, yogurt||Sandwich with liver, compote||Veal Steak, Braised Zucchini||Carrot juice||A piece of baked fish, salad|
|Thursday||Omelet with spinach and tomato||Pear tea||Borsch with meat, cheese cake||Curd with dried apricots||Fish balls, cucumber and tomato salad|
|Friday||Millet porridge with pumpkin, peanut butter biscuits||Cottage cheese, apple||Baked broccoli with chicken, boiled brown rice||Glass of kefir||Stuffed cabbage, bread|
|Saturday||Curd casserole with dried fruits||A handful of nuts, jelly||Spaghetti with meatballs, salad||Yogurt||Ear, two slices of brown bread|
|Sunday||Two boiled egg-house oatmeal cookies, tea||The apples||Stewed eggplant and carrot meat||Cottage cheese||Baked pink salmon, greens|
Any serious changes in the diet of schoolchildren should occur after the necessary preliminary diagnostics and the receipt of an appropriate opinion by a children's specialist.
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