Iodine - daily intake and table of contents in products
Health Benefits of Iodine
Iodine is one of the most important trace elements that ensure the proper functioning of the metabolism. It not only directly participates in the oxidative processes of cells and stimulates brain activity, but also improves the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels. Among other things, the human body uses iodine to synthesize thyroid hormones.
Chronic iodine deficiency leads to a complex metabolic disorder - from a decrease in immunity and increased fatigue to a faster storage of fat in the thighs, abdomen and sides, as well as a decrease in testosterone in men . However, unfortunately, most city dwellers do not cover the need for daily iodine.
The daily requirement of an adult for iodine is about 0.15 mg (equivalent to 150 mcg), and for pregnant women and nursing mothers this norm is almost doubled - up to 0.2-0.3 mg (200-300 mcg) (2 ) The maximum safe dose of a single consumption of iodine is 0.5 g (500 mcg). The deadly dose is more than 1 g (1000 mcg) (3) .
A daily intake of iodine of less than 0.05 mg (50 μg) quickly leads to a deficiency. However, the constant use of doses of iodine in excess of 500 mcg per day also negatively affects health, slowing down the metabolic rate - that is why before taking dietary supplements and multivitamins with iodine it is important to make sure that you really have a deficiency.
What is the danger of iodine deficiency?
As FitSeven already mentioned above, the human body uses iodine for a number of processes for the synthesis of thyroid hormones - in the first place, T 3 (triiodothyronine) and T 4 (thyroxine), which are responsible both for the metabolism in general and for fat burning in particular . If you do not receive the daily norm of iodine with food, the level of these hormones in the blood decreases sharply.
The use of iodine in an amount, even 20-30% lower than the recommended daily requirement, leads to the development of headaches, chronic fatigue and irritability. Scientific evidence suggests that moderate iodine deficiency leads to a weakening of memory, a decrease in concentration and a decrease in the index of intellectual abilities IQ by 10-15 points (2) .
The relationship of obesity with the need for iodine
Most of all, the lack of iodine norm affects the body’s ability to use glucose as the main source of energy, while increasing the percentage of its utilization in body fat. Against the background of these processes, the low level of the hormones T 3 and T 4 makes a person slow, thus contributing to the processes of deposition of unwanted fat.
Among other things, iodine deficiency in nutrition negatively affects the secretion of growth hormone IGF-1 . This hormone is responsible for both body growth in adolescence and muscle gain and fat burning in adults. That is why adolescents, athletes and losing weight people should especially carefully monitor the coverage of the need for iodine in their daily diet.
Iodine content in foods
In coastal areas, a certain amount of iodine is contained in the atmosphere, including air and water. The greatest concentration of the mineral is possessed by sea salt, algae, various fish and animals that feed on these algae, as well as some food products. However, in regions far from the sea or ocean, the iodine content in air and water is minimal.
If you live on a flat territory in the depths of the continent (for example, in Central Russia or Siberia), practically do not eat seafood and do not take iodine in the form of additives, you can say with a high degree of certainty that you have a lack of it. Separately, we note that in ordinary fruits, vegetables, cereals and meat, there is practically no iodine.
It is estimated that about two billion people on the planet suffer from a chronic lack of iodine in their daily diet (primarily residents of Russia, Ukraine, several countries of Eastern Europe, as well as France, Italy, Germany), while another billion are at risk of an excess of trace elements in the diet - for example, residents of Brazil, the USA, Mexico and other countries (1) .
In countries experiencing an acute shortage of iodine, edible salt is enriched with iodine at the legislative level - when this salt is used in food, the body's need for an important trace element is automatically covered. A typical iodine content in such a salt is 10-40 μg / g - in other words, about 5-10 g of iodized salt is needed to cover the daily iodine rate.
Body iodine test
Unfortunately, it is impossible to confidently recognize iodine deficiency, based only on secondary symptoms (for example, persistent headaches or excess weight gain). Considering the fact that the use of excessive amounts of iodine can be dangerous, you must either go to the clinic for a laboratory blood test, or conduct a simple home test.
One of the most obvious home tests for detecting an acute need for iodine is to apply a 5% iodine solution to the skin in the form of a special grid of thin lines with a frequency of about 1 cm. If the lines applied to the skin disappear faster than in 6-8 hours, then the body lacks iodine, and if the lines remain longer, then everything is fine.
What is the danger of excess iodine in the diet?
Symptoms of an excess of iodine in the diet (and in the body) are even less pronounced than the symptoms of its deficiency. First of all, the central nervous system suffers from an excess of iodine - a person has a level of irritability, hyperreactivity appears, various paranoia develops and panic attacks can even occur.
Excessively high iodine levels in men provoke inhibition of sex hormones, leading both to impaired potency and gynecomastia (female breast enlargement). However, the key is that an excess of iodine occurs exclusively with uncontrolled intake of dietary supplements and is almost impossible when eating ordinary food, albeit rich in iodine.
Iodine deficiency in nutrition is one of the most important reasons for slowing down metabolism, accelerating the processes of gaining excess weight and impaired cognitive functions. Unfortunately, residents of the central regions of Russia are at high risk, since the proportion of iodine received by them with conventional food products often does not cover the recommended daily allowance.
Degree of public health significance of iodine nutrition, source