Guesses and assumptions will not help to create an effective fat-burning diet. Listen to the advice of expert Kristin Hronek on how to develop a diet for drying yourself.
If you recently decided to get rid of excess fat, then you probably thought a lot about it, and expect immediate results.
Now, having gathered your courage, you are counting on getting a stable visible effect that you could track weekly.
In fact, weight loss and fat burning are two different things. Kilograms can go away by reducing the volume of water, glycogen, muscle or fat.
Too many diet programs for weight loss roaming the Internet, often calling for creating a calorie deficit that interferes with the preservation of muscle mass and leads to metabolic disturbances in the long run.
To prevent fat loss from harming lean muscles, you need to develop a diet to dry your body based on sound scientific principles.
This article is written with the aim of teaching you to gradually build a nutrition plan to reduce the percentage of body fat without losing muscle mass, how to properly compose and maintain a daily diet.
Step 1 - Set Realistic Tasks
Before starting your fat burning path, reconcile that eliminating excess fat is NOT associated with weight loss. Some scales will not show what is really happening. If you began to weigh less, this does not mean that you have lost fat. By focusing on kilograms, you will not achieve drying results.
With the help of traditional diets, people who rotate in a bodybuilding environment often lose fat too quickly, achieving a tangible effect after 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The proper nutrition for drying, compiled by me for my clients, is aimed at losing more than 5 - 10% of the mass of fat, but it takes 12, 16 or even 20 weeks.
In the fight against excess fat, the main goal is to preserve the muscle mass accumulated by hard work. Before moving on, you should decide how “dry” and embossed you want to become.
The lowest percentage of fat content ranges from 4 - 8% for men and 8-12% for women.
Most people are completely satisfied with a less pronounced muscle relief, which, nevertheless, looks spectacular on the beach (about 10 - 12% for men and 18 - 22% for women). The speed with which you can complete the task is different for everyone. However, in any case, at least 1% of the mass of fat is consumed per week.
Success in drying the body can only be achieved with a 100% concentration on the optimal diet and regular strength and cardio training without missing classes. It is perfectly acceptable to expect a loss of 0.5-1% fat mass per week.
Step 2 - Calculate Your OO
The main metabolism (OO, other names basic or basal metabolism) is determined by the number of calories that ensures the maintenance of optimal life without taking into account the energy consumption for performing exercises and other work. With this indicator, you can lower your calorie intake for effective fat burning. OO shows how many calories you can theoretically lose while remaining at rest for 24 hours.
This value reflects the minimum amount of energy required for the functioning of the body, including the processes of respiration and blood circulation, without taking into account the calories spent during daily activities or training. Determining OO will help you calculate how many calories you need to eliminate excess fat.
Resting metabolism (or SMEs) can be measured with portable calorimetric devices, which are mainly used by doctors or weight loss clinics, at a nominal price in the range of 3-6 thousand rubles. ($ 50 - 100). Such devices determine the maximum oxygen consumption (IPC). Based on the data obtained, the TOE is calculated using special software that reads information from these devices.
OO calculation is a mathematical model based on the characteristics of height, weight, age and gender. The most popular equations are Harris-Benedict and Mifflin-St. Jeor.
Step 3 - Determining Activity Level
Having learned your OO, you can find out how many calories the body consumes in response to energy expenditure, given activity. Now you must truthfully answer the question of how “active” you are, otherwise you will not be able to determine the current level of your activity. Multipliers reflect different degrees of activity within a weekly period.
- If you spend a lot of time sitting and not training, multiply your OO by 1.2;
- If you do light workouts one to three times a week - 1,375;
- If you practice three to five times a week - 1.55;
- When training six to seven times a week - 1.725;
- If you exercise daily and you have hard physical work - 1.9.
For example, a 30-year-old man with a height of 190 cm and a weight of 104 kg, training 3-5 times a week, should calculate the need for calories like this:
- OO (according to the formula of Harris Benedict) = 2239 Kcal
- OO (2239 Kcal) x 1.55 (activity) = 3445.65 Kcal / day *
* Therefore, this person needs approximately 3446 Kcal per day in order to maintain current body weight with the current level of physical and sports activity. The next step in building a proper nutrition plan for drying will be creating a calorie deficit based on this figure.
Step 4 - Calculate Your Calorie Deficiency
In conditions of a lack of calories, the body begins to look for alternative sources of "fuel". Calorie deficiency is nothing but a lack of energy. Being an excellent (and necessary) means of losing fat mass, it will inevitably affect training indicators, such as recovery, performance, endurance, progress, etc.
It is worth noting that any fat-burning diet should be accompanied by appropriate adjustments to the training program. Namely, it is necessary to reduce the intensity of training (due to the number of approaches, repetitions and / or the number of exercises) or its frequency (total number of exercises for each muscle group). Both conditions can be met.
In order for excess body fat to be used as the main source of energy, you need to lower the calorie intake below the required level. The thing is that a calorie deficit can be small, medium or large, depending on how far you have gone from the required calorie level and how much you have reduced their daily intake.
Ideally, the body will cover energy deficiency due to fat. But also he can put on these needs and muscles, if the diet is too scarce. To burn 0.5 kg of fat per week, you need a calorie deficit of -3500 or -500 Kcal / day. Adhering to such a harmless and moderate pace of getting rid of body fat, it will be possible to gradually improve physical fitness without losing lean muscle mass.
We will focus on a daily calorie deficit of -500 Kcal or a loss of 2 kg of fat per month.
Step 5 - Determine Macronutrient Ratio
Now you know how many calories are needed to maintain your current form, and how much you need to reduce their consumption to create a deficit. The next stage is the subtraction of these two values to establish the daily calorie requirement. Further, the obtained value is divided into three categories of macronutrients in the form of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
According to the considered example, a 30-year-old man of 190 cm / 104 kg, who wants to burn excess fat, needs 3446 Kcal per day to maintain existing indicators. For a weekly loss of 0.5 kg of body fat (without burning dry muscle mass), he should consume 2946 Kcal per day (subtract the calorie deficit (500) from the daily norm (3446)).
The breakdown and processing of these calories into an appropriate amount of protein, carbohydrates and fats fundamentally affects the energy level and overall results.
The first law of thermodynamics states that calories remain calories. Regardless of the source of energy received, one calorie is equal to the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. Energy cannot be created or destroyed - only transformed.
Rubner and Thiswater used a calorimetric bomb to measure the amount of energy released by each of the macronutrients by determining the calorific value of each of them necessary for their decay into carbon dioxide, water and heat. The experiment showed the following specific energy of each macronutrient:
- food protein: 4.1 kcal / g
- carbohydrates: 4.1 kcal / g
- fat: 9.3 kcal / g
Roughly speaking, we spend 4 Kcal / g of protein, 4 Kcal / g of carbohydrates and 9 Kcal / g of fat (I don’t know why many people panic, seeing that the specific energy of fats is almost twice as much).
Recommended: 2 - 3 g / day per 1 kg of body weight for fat burning
From a nutritional point of view, so that the fight against excess fat does not affect muscle mass, you should consume enough protein daily. None of the macronutrients except protein has nitrogen in it. With its positive balance, the body switches to lipolysis, the biological process of converting fat into energy.
According to the US Food and Drug Administration, we need 50 grams of protein per day (2000 Kcal) according to a 2000 Kcal diet. In other words, 10% of the calories consumed per day should be protein. In this case, only one aspect was taken into account - nitrogen balance. The nitrogen molecule, which is contained exclusively in proteins, is the main participant in the construction of the body structure and DNA synthesis.
In this case, the fact that it is the proteins that act as signaling molecules to maintain metabolism is not taken into account. Also, the amount of protein required to preserve muscle during weight loss is not indicated in order to accelerate fat burning.
In addition, it does not explain how much quality protein is needed when playing sports, in stressful situations, to maintain blood sugar levels or to stabilize the level of glucose in muscles and blood with age.
To stimulate fat burning while preserving muscle, as a general rule, 2 g of protein per 1 kg of weight per day is required. This is a good starting position that can be adjusted according to your needs within 1.6 - 3 g / kg.
In the table below, you can more accurately adjust your protein intake based on your ultimate goal:
|Criterion||Recommended qty (g) per kg body weight|
|The average healthy adult (male or female), leading a sedentary lifestyle, NOT involved and NOT planning to play sports. This is the minimum amount of protein needed to maintain the health and functioning of the body.||1 - 1.4 g / kg|
|The average healthy adult person (male or female), Engaged in light sports or WISHING to improve the figure (lose fat, build muscle, etc.). This is the minimum recommended number.||1.6 - 2 g / kg|
|An average healthy adult WOMAN whose main goal is to build muscle, “tone up”, maintain muscle during drying, increase strength or stamina.||2 - 2.4 g / kg|
|The average healthy adult MAN, whose main goal is to build muscle, “tone”, maintain muscle during fat burning, increase strength or stamina.||2 - 3 g / kg|
Most protein is found in:
- whey protein isolate
- pea protein
- hemp protein
- chicken breast
- collagen peptides
- egg whites
- whole eggs
- nutritional yeast
- ground beef
- minced chicken
- minced turkey
- flank steak
- filet mignon
- gourmet turkey breast
- gourmet chicken breast
- bifer jerky
- white fish
- sea bass
- smoked salmon
Recommended: 0.5 - 0.9 per 1 kg of body weight for fat burning *
* Please note that this is not the only option for fat loss. The effect can be achieved by consuming an increased amount of fat with reduced carbohydrate intake. This approach is based on ketosis - the mechanism by which the body synthesizes ketone bodies from edible fat, using it as an energy source instead of glycogen (carbohydrates). This method helps someone, but someone suffers from a transition process and problems with brain activity when consuming less than 50 g / kg of carbohydrates per day.
Fats from food help to reduce the subcutaneous fat layer. Not only is it a nutrient with the highest specific energy of 9 Kcal / g, it also promotes the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Fat is an indispensable building material for cell membranes, preventing nerve damage, activating muscle movement and providing blood coagulation.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats will help to maintain health, being the most useful varieties of dietary fat. Such food is quite high in calories, but many continue to load their diet with an immense amount of fat.
Eating more fat - about 30% of the total calories or more when it comes to a low-carb diet - can achieve good results. But you need to be alert, because this norm is easy to exceed.
Even if you do not count calories or macronutrients, it does not hurt to set some limits. It is necessary to measure the amount of fats and oils before consuming. Refueling the salad with olive oil, the permissible two tea boats can quickly turn into dining rooms. And in one spoonful of peanut butter three portions can fit.
Fats are delicious, so they are easy to get carried away. Even if you are trying to increase your fat intake, do not do it uncontrollably.
When preparing a nutrition plan for fat burning, instead of saturated fats, give preference to unsaturated healthy for the heart, because they will help reduce the risk of heart disease. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines (Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010) recommends reducing your fat intake to 10% of your total calorie intake.
Saturated fats are rich in fatty meats, whole milk, cream, lard, butter, cheese and ice cream. If possible, replace these foods with healthy vegetable oils, fish oil, flax seeds, avocados, hummus, nuts or seeds.
|Criterion||Recommended qty (g) per kg body weight|
|This is the minimum amount of fat needed by MEN or WOMEN for fat burning. By consuming less than 0.5 g / kg, you run the risk of getting a brain disorder. Also, such a diet is easy to break. This amount of fat is suitable for preparing for competitions, photo shoots or other one-time sporting events.||0.5 - 0.6 g / kg|
|This amount of fat guarantees stable average results for those who want to lose excess fat within reasonable limits to achieve a "competitive form", choosing a more sparing diet compared to their rivals.||0.6 - 0.8 g / kg|
|Using the proposed amount of fat, you definitely will not starve. This is not the fastest, but the most conservative and realistic approach, which in the long run will provide stable results for everyone who wants to change the food system once and for all. It is recommended to start from this level, reducing and adjusting it to obtain a more tangible effect.||0.8 - 0.9 g / kg|
The diet should be supplemented with such sources of healthy fats:
- Extra Virgin Olive Oil (Extra Virgin)
- synthetic dietary fats
- chia seeds
- flax seeds
- almond butter
- coconut oil
- sesame oil
- Brazil nut oil
- pumpkin seed oil
- fish oil
- unroasted almonds
- cashew nuts
- Brazil nuts
- pine nuts
- pumpkin seeds
- sesame seeds
- sunflower seeds
- sunflower oil
Recommended: The amount of calories not attributable to fats and proteins is given to carbohydrates. For accurate calculation, subtract “protein” and “fat” calories (protein in grams x 4 Kcal / g and fat in grams x 9 Kcal / g, respectively) from the recommended daily calorie intake. The result of dividing the obtained difference by 4 is equal to the daily dose of carbohydrates.
Due to the propaganda of low-carb diets by the media, carbohydrates have earned a poor reputation. Indeed, their excess leads to fullness. But many do not understand the obvious benefits of these macronutrients for building muscle. Carbohydrates (saccharides) are molecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
By combining and forming polymers, carbohydrate molecules are able to accumulate and store nutrients, act as a protective membrane of cells and organisms, and provide structural support to plants and the components of many cells and their contents.
The main task of carbohydrates in nutrition is to supply the body with energy. Most of them break down or convert into glucose, which serves as energy fuel. Carbohydrates can also turn into fat (energy reserve) for future use.
Fiber is an exception. Energy is not directly generated from it, but it nourishes the beneficial intestinal microflora. These bacteria can convert fiber to fatty acids, which are used by many cells as a source of energy.
Carbohydrates increase insulin levels, which in turn is a hormone of fat accumulation. However, not many people know that insulin is also an anabolic hormone of muscle growth. There is a critical limit to the optimal amount of carbohydrates for each person. Having stepped over this line, excess carbohydrates that do not go to the synthesis of muscle tissue trigger biochemical processes during which they go to the fat depot.
The optimal level of carbohydrate intake depends on age, gender, physique, level of activity, personal preferences, food culture and current metabolic rate. Physically active people with a large percentage of muscles in the body can consume much more carbohydrates than people with a sedentary lifestyle. In particular, this applies to those who engage in high-intensity anaerobic sports, such as strength training or sprinting.
Healthy metabolism is another important factor. When a person develops a metabolic syndrome, he rapidly grows fat or earns diabetes of the second degree, the rules change. People in this category cannot absorb as much carbohydrates as healthy ones can handle. Some scientists describe this problem as "carbohydrate intolerance."
If you suffer from diabetes, insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome, a diet with fewer carbohydrates and a higher level of intake of fats (wholesome) and proteins will probably suit you. Wellness will help you follow this nutrition plan for a long time. If you feel better by consuming more carbohydrates and losing fat (and controlling blood sugar), then, of course, eat this way.
In the table you will see the standard norms for the consumption of carbohydrates for fat burning. However, do not forget that with increased sensitivity to carbohydrates, you will have to drastically reduce this level to lose excess fat. In addition, the amount of fat and protein consumed also affects this indicator.
Cases when you do not lose body weight properly (0.5 - 1 kg weekly) are a reason to reduce the proportion of carbohydrates in the diet until the kilograms begin to leave. But if you experience a feeling of lethargy and fatigue from a small (or large) proportion of carbohydrates in the diet, make the appropriate amendments. Build on these recommendations and adjust them as you see fit.
|Criterion||Recommended qty (g) per kg body weight|
|People with a sedentary lifestyle and insulin resistance||1 - 1.4 g / kg|
|Despite its wide range, this level of carbohydrate intake allows you to lose fat. The main role is played by the degree of activity, the percentage of dry muscles and the speed with which it is planned to achieve a result.||1.4 - 3 g / kg|
|This volume is recommended for active men and women who want to maintain or gain lean muscle mass. This is ideal for building muscle. It is suitable for those who constantly train, work as a fitness instructor, or remain active all day (builders, professional athletes, etc.).||3 - 4 g / kg|
|The optimal dose of carbohydrates for athletes working on endurance (marathon runners, triathletes, etc.) and seeking to build muscle.||4 - 6 g / kg|
In the search for complex carbohydrates, give preference to the following products:
- sweet potato
- white rice
- brown rice
- wild rice
- red potatoes
- whole wheat bread
- cereal bread
- durum wheat pasta
- corn tortillas
Complex carbohydrates of fruit and vegetable origin are presented:
- sweet pepper
- brussels sprouts
- green beans
- sweet pea cuff
Step 6: Plan the drying menu based on the optimal balance of macronutrients
A man weighing 104 kg and wanting to lose 0.5 kg of fat every week should consume 2946 Kcal per day, according to our estimates. We calculate the norm of micronutrients according to the following formula:
- Proteins: 3 g protein / kg weight x 104 kg = 312 g protein (1248 kcal)
- Fat: 0.6 g fat / kg weight x 104 kg = 62.4 g fat (561.2 kcal)
- Carbohydrates: 2946 calories per day - protein calories - fat calories = 1136.8 kcal or about 284 g (1136.8 / 4)
- 312 g of protein / 62.4 g of fat / 284 g of carbohydrates is 47.4% / 18.5% / 34.1%
Having dealt with the macronutrient composition, determine how many meals per day you can gain the norm. To burn fat, it is recommended to adhere to five meals a day with an interval of 2-3 hours, excluding food intake at the end of the workout.
Menu for drying the body for a day
Using our example, we draw up a nutrition program for fat burning, suppose that our 104-pound client does cardio at 6.00 and conducts strength training at 17.00. Means, he should distribute meals and observe as follows:
- Cardio 6.00
- Meal No. 1 - 7.00
- Meal number 2 - 10.00
- Meal No. 3 - 13.00
- Meal No. 4 - 16.00
- Pre-Workout Meal - 16.45
- Strength training - 17.00
- Post-workout meal - 18.00 - 18.30
- Meal No. 5 - 20.30
Having prepared the diet during drying, it is necessary to break into portions the total number of macronutrients. First of all, you need to subtract from the recommended norm the dose of macronutrints used after training, including along with sports nutrition. The remaining value is further distributed by meals. Suppose that our client’s post-training menu is as follows:
- 2 scoops whey protein isolate
- 1 medium-sized banana
- glass of water
- ice (optional)
This meal takes 330 Kcal (51 g protein, 0 g fat, 35 g carbohydrates). Subtract these figures from the daily norm of macronutrients, and we get 261 g of protein, 62.4 g of fat and 249 g of carbohydrates. Now we distribute them in five meals.
Divide each value by 5 and get a single dose of macronutrients: 10.2 g of protein, 12.5 g of fat, 49.8 g of carbohydrates. To build an optimal diet based on the figures obtained, it is necessary to follow the following general rules:
- 100 g of chicken breast accounts for approximately 25 g of protein
- for half a glass of boiled white rice - 25 g of carbohydrates
- 4 teaspoons of olive oil per 1 teaspoon of olive oil
According to these principles, one meal should include about 260 grams of chicken breast, a glass of boiled white rice, and 3.5 teaspoons of olive oil (or one full tablespoon). This is a great template that will help beginners develop their own nutrition plan based on their individual needs for macronutrients.
These products can be replaced with other sources of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. If you want to get a personalized nutrition plan that takes into account your taste preferences, use the online resource for creating a diet, such as Gauge Girl Training.
Step 7 - Track Your Progress
The determination of the percentage of fat in the body should be carried out no more than once every 1-2 months. Meanwhile, other methods for evaluating the results can be applied. Weigh yourself every one to two weeks. On average, you should lose 0.5 kg weekly.
It is also useful to monitor changes in the girth of body parts with a sewing centimeter. Measure your chest, waist, pelvis, and hips once every two to two weeks. Volumes will go away with fat loss. No method will show exactly how much fat you burned. But at least you will know that the process is going on.
Please note that fat burning takes place at unequal intervals. At first you can get quick results, but then you will come across the “plateau” effect. Stable steady progress will require constant adjustment of diet and exercise.