Gymnastic jumps comprehensively affect the body, increasing muscle tone, flexibility and developing a sense of balance. To perform vaulting, a projectile is used, which is familiar to many from school physical education lessons. A goat or horse can be found in most gyms, so nothing prevents you from mastering this movement. Almost everyone can learn to perform a jump through a goat or horse, regardless of age and degree of sports training.
Effects on the body
Like other exercises from gymnastics, jumping over a support (horse or goat) comprehensively train all the muscles of the body. In addition to large muscle groups, they affect small muscle stabilizers and develop joint flexibility. With the right approach, this exercise can be an important part of the training process.
Many trainers also consider jumping over a support as a cardio load, since during a run there is a sharp increase in heart rate. This has a positive effect on the body and tones the cardiovascular system.
In gymnastics, there are several types of sports jumping. Jumping using a goat or horse is usually referred to as supporting. Actually, a gymnastic apparatus acts as a support.
The projectile can be installed in length or width. Depending on this, the jumping technique will vary, in particular, the takeoff distance. You can also select one of the jump styles - straight or side.
The standard technique of jumping over a horse has several stages:
- Take-off run (athlete accelerates before jumping onto the bridge).
- A jump on the bridge (with both feet you must land on its spring surface).
- Repulsion by legs (elastic push from the bridge gives the body additional acceleration).
- Flight (in fact, this is the beginning of the jump until the moment the support is touched).
- Hands touching the surface of a horse or goat (pushing away from a projectile).
- Flying after the jolt (the final phase of the jump).
- Landing (ideally, you need to land on two slightly bent legs, and then straighten).
At first glance, this sequence may seem very complicated. In fact, all stages pass very quickly and smoothly flow one into the other. It is important to understand that all phases of the jump are equally important. If inaccuracy is made during any of them, this will ruin the whole exercise. Jumping through a gymnastic apparatus (horse or goat) practically does not differ in technique for men and women.
Vaulting requires preliminary training in the form of an active warm-up and warming up of muscles and joints. Failure to do so may result in injury and severe muscle pain.
The purpose of the warm-up is to prepare the muscles and ligaments for the load. Before the start of the lesson, it is recommended to walk around the hall. First, do regular walking, periodically changing the pace, then walk on toes and heels, run a few laps. Next, do a series of squats and lunges forward and to the sides . Also, jumping rope is suitable for warming up.
After you warm up your legs, move on to other muscles. Make head and body rotations, leaning back and forth , as well as rotating the joints in different directions. Often the warm-up time is related to the time spent on training, and sometimes even exceeds it. After warming up, you should feel that your body has become more flexible, your muscles have become elastic, and your joints have mobility.
For those who are familiar with gymnastics and have been engaged in jumping for a long time, there is a faster and more intense version of the warm-up. It includes several series of jumps, each of which must be completed within 30-60 seconds. To begin with, you should jump in place, trying to touch your knees with your chest. After this, you need to make the transitions from lying down to sitting emphasis.
Next, all stages that include a jump through a goat or horse will be examined in detail.
Take-off should be carried out with a gradual acceleration. Sudden changes in speed can adversely affect the quality of the jump. In professional gymnastics, the take-off speed can reach 8 m / s.
Take the starting position from which you usually start running. Do not start too abruptly. Your movements should be smooth and natural. The length of the distance depends on a number of factors, including:
- type of projectile;
- type of jump;
- level of sports training.
For beginners, the running distance is about 10 m. The running technique is the same as when running short distances.
Jump on the bridge
A jump must be done when reaching maximum acceleration. Many beginners make the mistake of slowing down just before jumping onto the bridge. This automatically degrades the technique and spoils the final result.
Typically, a shell and a bridge are 1 meter apart. This distance may increase or decrease depending on the take-off speed. When attacking the bridge, the body should be slightly inclined forward. Both legs need to be taken out of the line of the body, connected together. Then you need to push off and touch the bridge. At this point, the hands should be below.
Landing on the bridge is important. It is necessary to land on socks, while the legs should be almost flat and tense. The feet should stand on the bridge parallel to each other.
After landing, a new phase begins - a kick with legs. The legs should be straightened at the knees, and the body should be tilted forward slightly, rounding the back.
Flying and touching the projectile with your hands
In the flight phase, the athlete swings back and extends the torso. This prepares the pelvic joints for quick flexion with a subsequent push.
The push includes 3 stages:
- Putting hands on a support (surface of a horse or goat).
- Acceptance of shock with bending of the elbow joints and subsidence in the shoulders.
- An active push, during which the shoulders move up, the arms straighten, and the wrists bend.
It is important to combine the push with your hands with a jerk of the body. This will lead to a rise in the pelvis and stopping of the legs, which will allow you to fly higher.
Flight after the jolt
The flight stage is one of the most important for the gymnast, as it largely affects the final evaluation of the performance by the judges. The position of the body in flight depends solely on what type of jump you are doing. Straighten the body and stretch your legs as straight as possible before landing.
Landing is done on toes, and you need to immediately stand on the foot. If you do not do this, then you can lose balance and fall. To soften the blow, you can try to bend your legs slightly. Hard landing can lead to pain and injury.
Jumping through a gymnastic apparatus is a classic exercise from gymnastics. It evenly develops the whole body, improving plasticity and a sense of balance. If you perform jumps regularly and competently combine them with a power load, you can achieve good athletic performance and harmoniously develop your body.