Vitamins and minerals are chemicals that ensure the smooth functioning of organs, their systems and many biochemical processes in the human body. Moreover, the body itself cannot produce these substances, they must regularly come from the outside. For people who are actively training, the issue of the intake of vitamins and minerals is quite acute, their lack significantly exhausts the body, does not allow to achieve the desired result.
Vitamins and minerals for the body of an ordinary person and athlete
Vitamins are simple organic substances that have a diverse chemical nature and are combined into one group as absolutely necessary substances for humans. The main purpose of vitamins is their catalytic functions. They accelerate the work of enzymes, hormones, provide the conditions for proper neurohumoral regulation.
Minerals are inorganic simple chemicals involved in the following processes:
- biochemical reactions of the body, being part of enzymes and hormones;
- muscle contractions;
- protein synthesis;
- blood coagulability;
- ensuring water-electrolyte balance;
- energy production;
- permeability of cell membranes to nutrients;
- the construction of certain body tissues, for example, zinc is necessary for the formation of the hormone testosterone, calcium - for bones.
With regular active training, people have increased metabolic rates, increased loads on all organs and their systems, so it is especially important for them to monitor the intake of vitamins and minerals. In addition, vitamins and minerals ensure the proper course of protein synthesis, which is necessary for muscle growth. It is impossible to build a beautiful muscular body with a lack of these compounds! Athletes need to increase the amount of vitamins recommended for normal life by 1.5 times, for bodybuilding fans - 2 times.
Vitamins for Sports
Based on their physical properties, vitamins are divided into two groups:
- water-soluble - vitamin C, all B vitamins.
- fat-soluble - vitamins D, A, E. Such vitamins should be consumed only with fats, otherwise they simply will not be absorbed.
Vitamin C - an antioxidant, anabolism stimulator, is of great importance for the athlete's body:
- regulates glucose uptake;
- participates in the synthesis of protein and steroid hormones;
- promotes saturation of body cells with oxygen;
- provides collagen synthesis, thereby preventing the depletion of connective tissues.
B vitamins are necessary for normal carbohydrate-protein-lipid metabolism. B6 and B1 are the most important participants in the process of muscle growth, B7 provides muscles with energy, B2, B3, B12 are indispensable participants in blood formation.
Vitamin A is involved in bone formation, metabolism, protein synthesis, and the formation of new cells.
Vitamin D is responsible for endurance, its lack is the main cause of chronic fatigue. Without it, calcium and phosphorus are not absorbed. This vitamin provides muscle contractions. In addition to being ingested with food, vitamin D can form in the skin under the influence of sunlight.
Vitamin E - provides protein metabolism, the normal functioning of muscles, glands, and the circulatory system.
Minerals for Sports
Calcium is the primary mineral for sports nutrition. He participates in:
- the formation and strengthening of bone tissue;
- blood coagulation with cuts;
- muscle activity;
- nervous regulation.
For normal absorption of calcium, it is necessary to use it together with vitamin D and magnesium.
Magnesium is actively involved in the regulation of many biochemical and physiological processes. It is especially important for ensuring protein synthesis, improving the activity of the heart, the functioning of the nervous system.
Sodium and its salts provide fluid balance in the body. Sodium affects the activity of the heart and blood vessels, is responsible for the normal functioning of the digestive, urinary and nervous systems. During intense training, along with sweat, the body loses a lot of sodium.
Potassium, along with sodium, regulates the body's water balance. It is also important for the normal functioning of the heart, blood vessels, liver, glands, kidneys, nerve cells. With a lack of potassium, urine output is delayed, swelling appears.
Zinc is needed for the growth of cells, joints, protein synthesis, and the coordinated functioning of the immune system. It is important for normal lymph activity and wound healing.
Iron is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin and the provision of blood oxygen metabolism . Accelerates the metabolism of B vitamins. Iron deficiency during active physical activity is a direct path to anemia.
Copper promotes the absorption of iron. Adequate intake of this element is the prevention of diseases of the joints and heart.
Chromium is involved in the transport of proteins, carbohydrate metabolism, and the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Iodine is important for the smooth operation of the thyroid gland, its sufficient daily intake reduces the risk of problems with the skeleton, overweight, and the psyche.
Manganese regulates the nervous system, is responsible for the condition of joints, bones.
Selenium is important for immunity, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, impaired secretion of hormones and enzymes responsible for metabolic processes in the body.
Foods Saturated with Essential Sports Vitamins and Minerals
C: rose hips, citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, green and leafy vegetables.
B6: peanuts, eggs, liver, soy, poultry, tuna, avocado, banana.
B1: legumes, yeast, bran, peanuts, whole wheat, milk.
B2: yeast, kidneys, liver, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, broccoli, asparagus.
B3: nuts, yeast, rye bread, legumes, tuna, meat, kidneys, liver.
B7: yeast, liver, eggs, kidneys, soy, peanuts.
B12: dairy products, meat and offal.
D: fish oil, butter, cheese, caviar.
E: vegetable oil, milk, butter, meat, liver, eggs, nuts, spinach.
A: fish oil, liver, margarine, carrots, green vegetables, yellow fruits and vegetables.
Calcium: vegetables (especially broccoli), salmon, milk. Products containing calcium are described in more detail here.
Sodium: salt, pickled products, salted fish, caviar, soy sauce, tomato juice and special sports drinks.
Potassium: dried fruits, bananas, grapes, blackcurrant, parsley, spinach, tomatoes, cabbage.
Zinc: oysters, lobsters, crabs, beef, lamb, pork, chicken meat, spinach, nuts, seeds, cocoa, porcini mushrooms.
Iron: shellfish, octopus, scallops, beef and pork liver, beef, pine nuts, pumpkin seeds, beans, spinach, tofu.
Magnesium: dried fruits, nuts, bran bread, buckwheat, oatmeal, salmon, squid, seaweed, greens, legumes, grapefruit, lemon, apples.
Copper: legumes, spinach, kefir, yolk, rye bread, barley, shrimp, crabs, liver.
Iodine: seaweed, seafood, sea fish, cheeses, eggs, dairy products.
Chrome: broccoli, grape juice, garlic, potatoes.
Selenium: dairy products, broccoli, crabs, seaweed, grains, olives, porcini mushrooms, Brazil nuts.
Manganese: mussels, tofu, blueberries, pineapple, spinach, beans, trout.
Each vitamin and mineral has its own important role in ensuring the vital functions of the body of any person. Athletes need to carefully monitor their nutrition and its saturation with these beneficial substances. However, with food, it is not always possible to replenish the norm of vitamins and minerals. It is necessary to consult with a specialist so that he prescribes a suitable vitamin-mineral complex and a sports drink.