Keto diet - what is it?
Keto diet is a diet that implies an almost complete rejection of carbohydrates in the diet. Strictly speaking, a sufficiently large number of different nutrition systems can be considered a ketone diet - both a carbohydrate-free diet and a protein diet . All of them involve the control of carbohydrates in order to lose weight and normalize metabolism.
The essence of the keto diet is that it forces the body to use, as a source of energy, not glucose (a product of the digestion of carbohydrates), but ketones (a product of fat metabolism). After 3-4 days of a complete rejection of carbohydrates, the body enters ketosis, starting to burn fat reserves. Read more about how to enter ketone properly in the article “ Keto Diet for Beginners “.
The potential harm to keto is that with prolonged adherence (more than 6 months), this diet can increase the level of ammonia in the blood, leading to intoxication of the body¹. Contraindications are pregnancy and child feeding, chronic liver and kidney diseases, as well as the use of anabolic sports supplements or alcohol abuse.
The dangers of a ketogenic diet
Ammonia is a by-product of the metabolism of the amino acids that make up the protein, always in relatively low concentrations in the blood. Exceeding its normal level by 2-3 times leads to serious toxic damage to the body and liver - especially against the background of high-fat keto nutrition. An excess of this substance causes increased fatigue and hormonal imbalance.
Studies suggest that in addition to congenital diseases, a high level of ammonia in the body is associated with prolonged adherence to protein diets (in particular, ketone nutrition) and the use of large doses of sports isolate. Also, against the background of the presence of a large number of animal fats in the diet of the keto diet, the level of bad cholesterol can also increase, causing a double blow to the liver.
Harm Keto Diet
The harm to keto-diets is caused not at all by the absence of carbohydrates in the diet as such. In the article “ What are carbohydrates? ”We said that their use in food (just like the presence of glucose in the blood) is not critical for human life or the functioning of any organs of the body. The brain, the most important organ of the body, can successfully work on ketone bodies with absolutely no carbohydrates.
The disadvantage of keto is that low glucose can provoke a decrease in glycogen stores and a drop in strength indicators in athletes, as well as blurred consciousness in ordinary people. According to reviews, when switching to ketone nutrition, people who want to lose weight often experience dizziness and difficulty in concentrating. In addition, lethargy and drowsiness may appear.
Possible harm and cons of the keto diet:
- Dizziness and difficulty concentrating
- Decrease in working capacity and power indicators
- Bad breath from acetone
- Increased blood ammonia
- Digestive difficulties
- Lack of certain vitamins
Ketone diet: contraindications
Contraindications to adherence to the keto diet is the presence of any chronic liver and kidney diseases, as well as with other metabolic disorders. A ketone diet is prohibited for pregnant women, it is not recommended for excessive alcohol consumption, as well as for taking a number of medications - from drugs to control cholesterol to anabolic steroids.
We also note that keto requires increased consumption of water (including to get rid of the smell of acetone from the mouth) - this can also cause a strict prohibition of the diet in the presence of a number of diseases. If you have any doubts about whether the ketone diet is right for you, we strongly recommend that you consult with your healthcare provider.
Keto Nutrition - Product List
Eating on a ketone diet allows only those foods that do not contain carbohydrates, do not increase blood sugar and do not allow the body to get out of a state of fat-burning ketosis. Read more about the principle of the keto diet .
List of Keto Diet Foods Allowed:
- all types of meat (beef, pork, chicken)
- all kinds of fish and seafood
- chicken eggs
- dairy products (butter, cheese, natural cottage cheese, milk in small quantities)
- any vegetable oils
- any green vegetables
- nuts in small quantities
- berries in small quantities
- non-starchy vegetables (avocado, pumpkin in small quantities)
- herbs, seeds (including chia seeds ), spices
As for drinks, any sweet soda and fruit juices are prohibited. Allowed coffee and tea without sugar, mineral water, as well as a small amount of weak alcohol taken with food.
How does a keto diet work?
In order for the metabolism to switch to the ketosis regimen, the level of glucose in the blood should decrease and be kept in a minimum condition for at least 36-48 hours. A method of such a decrease in glucose is a keto diet - a complete rejection of a diet containing carbohydrates with a high and medium glycemic index. Also, entry into ketosis can take place on the principle of interval fasting .
Ketone diet prohibits the use of not only bread, flour and pasta, pastries, sweets, any sweets, sweet juices and soda, but also any fast carbohydrates , almost all fruits, as well as vegetables that are high in starch (especially potatoes , corn and peas) and most cereals - starting from semolina, bulgur and couscous (all this is wheat), ending with oatmeal.
A typical keto diet menu is scrambled eggs with bacon or cheese for breakfast, a serving of meat with green beans for lunch, a handful of nuts as a snack, and a serving of fish and salad for dinner. It is important to note that the transition to ketogon nutrition is carried out without limiting the portions eaten or without counting calories - in fact, the body will burn fat and lose weight even while maintaining normal calories.
- Greek yogurt - 80 ml
- Olive Oil - 20 ml
- Berries - 30 g
- Walnuts - 10 g
- Coffee without sugar - 200 ml
- Beef - 60 g
- Pumpkin (as a mashed potato) - 100 g
- Cheese - 15 g
- Olive or Coconut Oil - 25 g
- Butter - 25 g
- Tomatoes - 40 g
- Canned Tuna - 20 g
- Avocado - 60 g
- Pine Nuts - 15 g
- Chicken breast (or salmon) - 60 g
- Asparagus or broccoli - 100 g
- Sour cream - 20 g
- Olive oil - 10 g
- Cocoa powder (sugar free) - 3 g
- Milk - 100 ml
- Calorie menu - 2200 kcal
- Protein - 35 g
- Fats - 210 g
- Carbohydrates - 30 g (of which fiber - 10).
Keto menu for the week
- Monday : morning cottage cheese without sugar, afternoon beef with vegetables, evening chicken with mushrooms.
- Tuesday : morning smoothie with avocado, afternoon meatballs with lentils, evening salmon with vegetables.
- Wednesday : nuts and sugar-free yogurt in the morning, quinoa salad with turkey in the afternoon, mushroom cream soup with broccoli in the evening.
- Thursday : morning scrambled eggs, afternoon chicken broth with broccoli, river fish in the evening.
- Friday : morning cottage cheese without sugar, afternoon green buckwheat with meat, evening baked beef with vegetables.
- Saturday : morning avocado and chia seeds salad, chicken cutlets in the afternoon, stew in the evening.
- Sunday : boiled eggs in the morning, spelled with veal and mushrooms in the afternoon, chicken breast in the evening.
Cyclic keto diet
The cyclic keto diet used by athletes, while preserving all the advantages of a regular ketone, adds another one - burning fat, it allows the body to simultaneously build muscle tissue. As a result, the effect achieved is many times greater - the muscles not only increase in size, but at the same time become more prominent. The reason lies in the change in hormonal levels and a significant increase in the production of growth hormone.
The diet itself is based on the following weekly principle of nutrition: from Monday to Thursday evening - days of a strict ketone diet; Thursday evening, Friday and Saturday - boot days with high calorie content and active consumption of carbohydrates; Sunday is a transitional day. A training plan is built in accordance with the diet every day.
Who needs a keto diet?
A ketone diet is recommended exclusively to those who already understand how to follow a normal carbohydrate-free diet. In other words, if you just want to lose a few pounds, you first need to change your daily eating habits and limit foods that lead to weight gain - first of all, give up sweets and flour , as well as any sources of fast carbohydrates.
In fact, first you must learn to distinguish foods with a low glycemic index , and only then seriously think about switching to a full keto. Otherwise, you may encounter a number of undesirable consequences and harm to the health of the body - both due to decreased performance, and due to a deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals.
Keto diet: reviews
Below are reviews of a carbohydrate-free (ketone) diet left by Fitseven readers. Recall that the keto diet is just the more correct scientific name for a common carbohydrate-free diet.
The husband was on this diet. A month later, an acetone breath appeared. And the diet is actually very poor, although we could afford any meat, fish and vegetables, all the same, the food is the same every day. The husband lost weight, but this diet is no longer in any way. She is really heavy.
Working Diet. The third time I dry on it. Everything is correctly said.
Consume more fat to burn fat.
I was on a carbohydrate-free keto diet, for 2 days I went into a state of ketosis by starvation, for 3 days I injected proteins. I lost 10 kg in 2 weeks! But you have to drink a lot of water!
A keto diet is a strict carbohydrate-free diet to reduce body weight or to alleviate the symptoms of epilepsy. The essence of keto nutrition is the complete exclusion of carbohydrates from the diet and the transfer of metabolism to ketosis and fat burning. Compared with other diets, it shows greater effectiveness for losing weight, but it can be harmful in its consequences (especially with long-term adherence).
- The Ketogenic Diet by Lyle McDonald, link
- Dietas cetogénicas en el tratamiento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, link
- Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction, link
- OMS macronutrientes, link